The State Organs
The People's Republic of Bangladesh is a unitary independent and sovereign republic comprising three basic organs: the executive, the legislature, and the judiciary. The President is the Head of State and is elected by the members of parliament. The President act in accordance with the advice of the Prime Minister and the supreme command of the Armed Forces vests with him.
The Executive power of the Republic is exercised by or on the advice of the Prime Minister (www.pmo.gov.bd) who commands the support of the majority members of parliament and is appointed by the President. Other ministers, state ministers and deputy ministers are appointed as per wish of the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister nominates the cabinet members from among parliament members and up to one tenths of the total from outside the parliament. The cabinet is collectively responsible to the parliament. The government is unitary in structure and parliamentary in form.
The parliament or Jatiya Sangsad (www.parliament.gov.bd) has 300 general and 45 reserved seats for the women. The general members are directly elected. The tenure of the parliament is five years. The term of the previous national parliament expired on 27 October 2006.
At the apex of the country's judiciary stands the Supreme Court (www.minlaw.gov.bd/supremecourt.htm). It consists of the High Court Division and the Appellate Division. The Supreme Court serves as the guardian of the Constitution and enforces the fundamental rights of the citizens.
There are subordinate courts at district and upazila levels as well as special courts and tribunals such as the administrative tribunal, family courts, labour tribunal, land, commercial, municipal and marine courts, tribunals for checking repression on women and children and for speedy trial of cases related to terrorism.